Glossary & Lantern Alphabet
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Eidophusikon - A form of pre-cinema entertainment invented by Philip Jacob de Loutherbourg in 1781. It seems similar to the later diorama shows, and has been described as a peepshow in which the audience sat inside the box.
Eidotrope - A form of Rackwork slide which typically has two sheets of metal with holes in rotating in opposite directions. The pattern of the holes is designed to give a similar effect to a Chromatrope slide.
Eidouranion - A form of pre-cinema entertainment invented by Adam Walker in the 1780's. It used some form of back projection to give astronomical effects on screen, accompanied by Adam's lecturing and music played on a Celestina - a type of glass organ.
Elbow Polariscope - Some slides require polarised light to show them to best effect. Typically they were effect slides where thin sheets of crystal or mica were arranged in a pattern. By rotating the slide in a polarised light source, the colours of the crystal changes. The Elbow Polariscope was the device used to produce polarised light. It uses a stack of reflecting glass plates to polarise the light, and as the light arrives and departs at 45 degrees to the stack, the device is shaped like a human elbow.
Electrical Tachyscope - This device created moving pictures by rotating a large disc with photographic images on it in front of a flashing light. It was invented by Ottomar Anshutz, and was in series production between 1892 and 1895.
Episcope - The Episcope is a device which enables opaque objects to be projected. An object placed in the Episcope has a strong light shone on it, and the image is projected on to a screen. The objects are usually flat illustrations or photographs, but can be 3-D objects. They were popular at one time for projecting postcards, and now and again "Post Card Projectors" come up for sale. Strangely enough, although we often think of Episcopes as coming after the Lantern Slide Projector, technically they pre-date it because in essence they are exactly the same as a Camera Obscura, in that a brightly lit opaque object forms an image on a screen via a lens. In one case the image is larger than the object and in the other case the image is smaller than the object. The Phantasmagoria projector could also project opaque objects.
Epidiascope- Similar to an Episcope but this devise can project opaque objects and also transparent slides. They are typically rather later than most magic lanterns, often being used for educational purposes during the twentieth century
Ether - Ether and oxygen combined has been used as an illuminant for Magic Lanterns. It proved however to be too unsafe, and caused at least one major explosion in France.
Filoscope - A form of flicker book patented by Short in 1898.
Fountain Slide - An effect slide where a water fountain is shown on the slide, and rotation of the handle produces movement in the water coming from the fountain. This gives the appearance of water flowing out of the fountain. More elaborate versions comprise a Dissolve Set where the fountain is on one slide, and the water effect on another slide which can be dissolved on to the fountain.